Tuckman Model


Every team relationship between two or more individuals goes through these stages:


  • Team Relationship is made, teams are formed
  • People learn about each other
  • Strengths and Weaknesses are understood
  • Usually, individuals want to get along, and therefore, there are no dramas
  • Productivity increases slowly, but improves over time


  • Turbulent period and quite stressful
  • Patience runs out
  • Individuals start challenging each other
  • Some relationships are ended, people get fired
  • Productivity sometimes halts or reverses


  • Relationships normalise
  • Individuals start acting as a team
  • Risky times, as individuals fall into routines
  • Productivity improves again


  • The holy grail of teams productivity
  • Teams members are able to anticipate each other
  • Productivity is highest

Take aways

  • Be patient and steady during the Storming phase
  • During the Norming phase, there is a big risk to revert back to Storming or even to Forming if new people need to join the team
  • Not guaranteed teams will ever reach the Performing phase
  • To get to the Performing level teams must apply a deliberate effort and hold a coherent dream